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Answer these judgment questions

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answer 1:
according to the provisions of the measures of the customs of the people’s Republic of China on the supervision of goods in processing trade, operating enterprises can carry out outward processing business with the approval of the customs. Outward processing shall be carried out within the validity period of the processing trade manual. The revised Measures of the customs of the people’s Republic of China on the supervision of goods in processing trade have deleted the provisions in the original measures of the customs of the people’s Republic of China on the supervision of goods in processing trade that business enterprises shall not outsource the main processes for processing. Therefore, with the approval of the customs, your company can outsource the main processes for processing
answer 10:
green packaging specifically, green packaging should have the following meanings:
1) implement packaging reduction (rece). Under the condition of meeting the functions of protection, convenience and sales, green packaging should be the appropriate packaging with the least consumption. Europe and the United States and other countries have listed the reduction of packaging as the first choice for the development of harmless packaging
2) packaging should be easy to reuse or recycle. The purpose of reuse can be achieved through repeated reuse, or by recycling waste, producing recycled products, burning and utilizing heat energy, composting and improving soil. It not only does not pollute the environment, but also makes full use of resources
3) packaging waste can be degraded and decomposed (). In order not to form permanent garbage, the non recyclable packaging waste should be able to decompose and decay, so as to improve the soil. At present, industrial countries all over the world attach importance to the development of biodegradable or photodegradable packaging materials. Rece, reuse, recycle and are recognized as 3R and 1D principles for developing green packaging in the world
4) packaging materials shall be non-toxic and harmless to human body and organisms. The packaging materials shall not contain toxic substances or the content of toxic substances shall be controlled below the relevant standards
5) in the whole life cycle of packaging products, there should be no pollution or public hazard to the environment. That is, the whole life process of packaging products from raw material collection, material processing, product manufacturing, product use, waste recycling to final treatment should not cause public hazards to human body and environment
in the above meaning of green packaging, the first four points should be the requirements that green packaging must have, and the last point is the ideal and highest requirements for green packaging from the perspective of system engineering based on life cycle assessment
types of green packaging materials
1. Reusable and recycled packaging materials
reusable packaging, such as beer, beverage, soy sauce, vinegar, etc. glass bottles are used repeatedly
recycled packaging can be regenerated by two methods. The physical method refers to the direct and thorough purification and crushing without any pollutant residue. The treated plastic can be directly used for recycled packaging containers. Chemical method means that after crushing and washing the recovered pet, under the action of catalyst, the pet is depolymerized into monomers or partially depolymerized, and then the monomers are re polymerized into recycled packaging materials after purification
the reuse and regeneration of packaging materials only prolong the service life of polymer materials such as plastics as packaging materials. When their service life is reached, they still face the problems of waste treatment and environmental pollution
2. Edible packaging materials
edible packaging film. For decades, the glutinous rice paper used in candy packaging and the corn baking packaging cup used to pack ice cream are typical edible packaging
the more mature synthetic edible packaging films are transparent, colorless, odorless, non-toxic, tough and high oil resistance films, which can be eaten and used as food packaging. Its luster, strength and folding resistance are relatively good
edible preservative film. As early as the 12th ~ 13th century, China has used wax to coat oranges and lemons to delay their dehydration and weight loss. Extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. The edible fresh-keeping film commonly used now has developed into a plastic with multiple functional properties, obvious waterproof and certain optional permeability. Therefore, it has broad application prospects in the food industry, especially in the fresh-keeping of fruits and vegetables
3. Degradable material
degradable material refers to a plastic whose chemical structure changes in a specific environment that causes performance loss in a specific time. Degradable plastic packaging materials not only have the functions and characteristics of traditional plastics, but also can be split, degraded and reduced in the natural environment through the action of ultraviolet light in the sun or microorganisms in soil and water after completing the service life, and finally re-enter the ecological environment and return to nature in a non-toxic form
4. Paper material
the raw material of paper is mainly natural plant fiber, which will rot quickly in nature, will not pollute the environment, and can also be recycled for papermaking. Paper materials are also used for pulp injection parts, composite materials, building materials and other purposes. In addition to the advantages of light weight, low price and shockproof, pulp molded products also have good air permeability, which is conducive to the preservation of fresh goods. In the international commodity circulation, they are widely used in the turnover packaging of fragile, broken and extruded goods such as eggs, fruits and glass products
I. impact of packaging waste on the ecological environment
1.1 damage of packaging waste to the urban natural environment
the pollution caused by packaging waste to the city accounts for a large share of the total pollution. Relevant statistics show that the emission of packaging waste accounts for about 1 /3 of the weight and 1 /2 of the volume of urban solid waste. The proportion of urban solid waste in China is 15% of its weight and 25% of its volume. Based on this, the implementation of green packaging is the inevitable trend of the overall development of packaging in the world. Whoever realizes this first will be in an active and invincible position in the competition of the world packaging market in the future
1.2 the harm of packaging waste to human health and the loss of natural resources
with the increasing scale of the packaging industry, disposable plastic packaging materials are widely used. Once portable plastic bags, disposable foam lunch boxes and other materials are discarded by people, they will form a large number of waste that is difficult to handle. The “white pollution” of railways, highways and streets is very serious. When the breeze blows, packaging waste such as packaging paper and plastic with various bacteria flutters in the wind, blowing various bacteria into thousands of households, seriously endangering people’s health. Now the high prevalence of respiratory diseases all over the world is closely related to the large discharge of solid waste. In order to ensure the health of all mankind, the world urgently calls for the development of green packaging
the waste and loss of natural resources caused by packaging waste is also a matter of concern. How many resources did the United States consume and destroy just packaging materials at that time? How many natural resources will hundreds of countries and regions in the world destroy in a year? According to a careful report on the situation of the packaging industry during 1958-1966 made by the Midwest Research Institute of the United States, the
annual consumption of packaging materials per person of the U.S. population at that time increased from 183kg in 1958 to 238kg in 1966, costing the U.S. public $25 billion, accounting for 3.4% of the total national output value at that time. In 1966, about 90% of the 23503 tons of packaging materials were discarded solid packaging waste and garbage, of which packaging paper accounted for 42%. If the profit per ton of waste paper can be offset by 17 trees used as papermaking raw materials. Based on this, the protection of blue sky, clear water and green resources has become the common goal of human life
II. The significance of green packaging
green packaging refers to the packaging that is harmless to the ecological environment and human health, can be reused and regenerated, and is in line with sustainable development. It can also be called ecological packaging. From a technical point of view, green packaging refers to an environment-friendly packaging developed with natural plants and related minerals as raw materials, which is harmless to the ecological environment and human health, conducive to recycling, easy degradation and sustainable development. In other words, the whole life cycle of its packaging products from raw material selection, product manufacturing to use and waste should meet the requirements of ecological and environmental protection Packaging design and vigorously develop green packaging industry to realize green packaging
the pollution of a country is not only related to the environment and the prosperity of the whole society, but also related to the destruction of the environment and the international market
III. current situation of green packaging in China
China’s packaging industry has made remarkable achievements from scratch and from small to large in the past ten years, but there is still a certain gap compared with the world’s advanced countries, especially in the application degree of packaging technology and packaging equipment, packaging design mode and concept. At present, packaging organizations around the world are actively working in the direction required by international environmental protection organizations, such as the introduction of new environmental protection packaging ISO14000 and other standards and regulations. In contrast, China’s environmental protection packaging lags behind another step, and the localization production capacity of environmental protection packaging materials is still very low. China’s research on environmental protection packaging should focus on the practical application of environmental protection packaging
since the 1980s, “green food”, “green clothing”, “green refrigerator” and “green car” have set off a huge green wave all over the world. The annual per capita consumption of packaging materials in foreign countries is more than 100kg, 50kg in the United States, 200kg in Japan, 90kg in Germany, 80kg in the CIS and 30kg in China. In contrast, the annual per capita consumption of packaging materials in China is low, but China has a population of 1.3 billion, so the annual consumption of packaging materials is quite large. The problem of recycling two-piece and three-piece cans in China’s aluminum can processing is still quite prominent. China has not done enough in green packaging design, and green packaging design still needs greater development in China
IV. strategies for green packaging design
the general principles followed by green packaging design are the so-called 3R principles, namely, recycle (reduce packaging), reuse (reuse packaging), recycle (recycling packaging, burial and treatment). The author believes that domestic packaging enterprises and relevant institutions should expand the application of green packaging design from several aspects:
4.1 for food packaging, edible packaging can be used
this is a good way to solve the contradiction between food packaging waste and environmental protection. In the design of some food packaging, an edible packaging film that does not affect the original flavor of the packed food can be made. At present, many kinds have been developed all over the world. For example, a company in Australia has developed an edible potato chip packaging, which can be eaten after eating potato chips. Another example is that a British company has made an edible fruit and vegetable preservative, which is a translucent lotion made of sugar, starch, fatty acid and polyester. It can cover the surface of apple, orange, watermelon, banana, tomato and other fruits and vegetables by spray, brushing or dipping. Because this preservative forms a sealing film on the surface of the fruit, it can prevent oxygen from entering the interior of the fruit and vegetable, so as to prolong the ripening process and keep fresh. The fresh-keeping period of the fruit and vegetable coated with this preservative can be more than 200 days. Best

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