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Corn straw green storage, specific method, solution

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China is a large agricultural and food country, with extremely rich roughage resources. It is a great waste that all kinds of food residue and agricultural waste can not be comprehensively utilized. The dregs of various food factories are rich in nutrition, and their utilization after treatment has great economic benefits. Using straw and forage as feed has mature technology in the United States, Japan and Canada. Even in developed countries, the price of meat, poultry and eggs is almost the same as that in China. China’s annual output of all kinds of straw is about 900 million tons, which is used for less than 10% of feed, another part is burned, and some machinery is returned to the field. Burning, in particular, is a great damage to natural resources. Now governments at all levels and farmers have begun to pay attention to the comprehensive utilization of straw. There are straw everywhere in rural areas all over the country. Livestock and poultry are bred everywhere. Using straw as feed has great market potential

the use of straw and forage as feed has mature technology in the United States, Japan and Canada. Even in developed countries, the price of meat, poultry and eggs is almost the same as that in China. China’s annual output of all kinds of straw is about 900 million tons, which is used for less than 10% of feed, another part is burned, and some machinery is returned to the field. Burning, in particular, is a great damage to natural resources. Now governments at all levels and farmers have begun to pay attention to the comprehensive utilization of straw. There are straw everywhere in rural areas all over the country. Livestock and poultry are bred everywhere. Using straw as feed has great market potential. The feed has the advantages of simple production and low cost. In rural areas, the front and back of houses, idle houses and fields can be made all year round to reduce human transportation, and can be made and used on site. It is a rich channel for farmers to save feed and turn waste into treasure

I. principle of action
the principle of fermenting straw feed is to greatly increase the secreted acid through the growth and reproduction of effective microorganisms, and the xylan chain and lignin polymer ester chain in the straw are enzymatically hydrolyzed, so as to soften the straw, expand the volume, and convert lignocellulose into sugars. Continuous and repeated fermentation can convert sugars into lactic acid and volatile fatty acids again, reduce the pH value to 4.5 ~ 5.0, inhibit the reproduction of spoilage bacteria and other harmful bacteria, and achieve the purpose of straw preservation. The organic substances such as starch, protein and cellulose are degraded into monosaccharides, disaccharides, amino acids and trace elements, which makes the feed softer, more fragrant and more palatable. Finally, those crude fibers that are not easy to be absorbed and utilized by animals are transformed into nutrients that can be absorbed by animals, and the digestion, absorption and utilization rate of crude fibers are improved

II. Efficacy and function
the silage conversion rate is as high as 95%, and the refined grain is saved by about 10%. For every 1 ton of silage, cows produce 140 kg more milk and beef cattle gain 4 kg more weight (compared with silage without products). Yellow storage can significantly increase the nutritional components of straw feed: crude protein 11% – 14%, organic acid more than 10 times, vitamin B group content dozens of times; The increase of cellulase and various digestive enzymes makes the utilization rate of straw up to more than 80%. For every ton of yellow storage, dairy cows produce more than 200 kg of milk, and beef cattle gain more than 6 kg of weight (compared with the conventional feeding without products). Promote the improvement of meat and milk quality
after fermentation with haowangnongqing feed starter, the milk fat rate of straw increased by 5% – 10%, the protein content increased by 3% – 8%, the fat decreased by 5% – 10%, and the cholesterol content decreased by 15% – 40%. It meets the green food standard and has strong market competitiveness
1. Shorten the maturity time of straw silage and yellow silage, and improve the quality of feed storage
2. Improve the palatability of the feed. The feed has soft texture, mellow, sour and fruit fragrance. The feed intake is increased by 20% – 40% and the feed speed is increased by more than 20%. Animals develop a hobby for microbial bacterial protein amino acids, lactic acid bacteria and yeast, just like the ingredients in human drinking amino acid oral liquid, yogurt and beer
3. Significantly increase the feed nutrients, increase the softness and swelling of straw, enable rumen microorganisms to directly contact with cellulose, and improve the digestibility of straw. Feeding cattle and sheep with micro stored feed can improve the lipase activity of cellulase in the rumen microflora of cattle and sheep, and promote the production of volatile fatty acids. Volatile fatty acids can provide a carbon frame for the synthesis of microbial bacterial protein, and propionic acid is an important grape precursor of ruminant livestock
4. Improve the digestibility, absorption and utilization rate of feed, improve the production performance, contain a variety of beneficial microorganisms and live bacteria, establish the micro ecological balance in the animal intestine, and the animals can fully absorb and utilize the feed nutrients, which can make the utilization rate of protein, energy and minerals reach 95%, greatly improve the absorption and utilization rate of crude fiber feed (straw, husk powder and unified bran), so it can reduce the feed cost, Long term use can save 10-25% feed
5. Improve immunity, prevent and treat intestinal diseases, establish intestinal microecological balance, inhibit the reproduction of harmful bacteria and increase the reproduction of beneficial microorganisms
6. Deodorization drives flies, reduces pollution and controls bacterial diseases. It can reduce the excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in feces, and reduce the emission of fecal odor and harmful gases, which is manifested in the gradual reduction of animal fecal odor, the reduction of waste of feed protein decomposed into ammonia, the reduction of ammonia concentration in the air to 26.5ppm, the reduction of odor intensity below grade 2.5, the effective control of the concentration of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the reduction of disease incidence, Promote healthy growth
7. Improve the quality of meat and milk, and replace antibiotics with live microbial preparations to produce “green meat” and “no anti milk”##+ V ☆ ## consultation # inquiry #

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III. fermentation method
1. Fermentation raw materials: various crop straw, leaves and weeds, melon and rattan, fruit residue, dry bagasse, husk powder, bran, edible fungus residue, chicken manure and other wastes
2. Strain dosage: silage: 0.0025%, yellow silage: 0.015%; That is, 50g haowangnong green feed starter is used for 2 tons of silage or 1 ton of yellow silage
3. Preparation of bacterial solution
(1) activation of bacterial starter: calculate the amount of good wangnongqing feed starter required according to the total amount of straw, and then revive it with 5 times of warm water (the water temperature is about 30 degrees and a little brown sugar is added if possible) for 2-6 hours 4. P
it loading
(1) layered calculation: calculate how many layers a pit is divided according to the thickness of each layer of 30 cm, and then predict the weight of each layer of straw, so as to distribute the amount of bacterial solution required for each layer. (weight of each layer of straw = specific gravity of dry straw) × Cellar area × The compacted thickness of each layer. Proportion of corn straw: 110kg /m3, proportion of wheat straw: 100kg /m3)
(2) layered cellaring: the chopped straw shall be cellared according to the thickness of 30cm in each layer. If straw is stored in yellow, add 0.5% corn flour or bran powder on each layer. The straw length is 2-5cm
(3) layer by layer spraying of bacterial liquid: small cellars are sprayed with watering cans and ladles, and large cellars are sprayed with small water pumps
(4) layered compaction: small-scale manual compaction, large-scale tractor compaction
5. Seal the cellar and ferment
until it is 0.4-0.5m higher than the flat mouth of the cellar. The top of the cellar is in the shape of steamed bread, and a layer of fine salt is evenly sprinkled on the top according to 250G /m2, and then sealed with plastic film. Thermal insulation measures can be added on it. The cellar can be opened for use in 7-10 days under normal temperature. (the fermentation time can be extended in winter)

IV. quality identification
Color: the color of silage and yellow silage with good quality is basically close to the color of raw materials before silage and yellow silage; The color of medium quality silage and yellow silage is brown and dark green; The color of inferior silage and yellow silage is black, dark and dark green.
smell: silage and yellow silage with good quality have obvious acid flavor, alcohol flavor and fruit flavor, giving people a very comfortable feeling; Medium quality silage and yellow silage have no obvious aroma, and have a particularly strong vinegar sour taste; Inferior silage and yellow silage have strong rotten smell.
feel: silage and yellow silage of good quality are pressed very tightly, but they are very loose in hand, with soft and moist texture; Silage and yellow silage with poor quality stick together like mud, or the texture is loose, dry and rough, and the physical properties change little

v. take materials
1. Take materials from top to bottom and from the head (outside) to the inner layer section by section.
2. After reclaiming, the pit mouth must be sealed tightly
VI. feeding
1. Fermented straw feed is not a fully nutritious feed. Straw fermented feed cannot be used completely during feeding. Other refined feeds providing nutrition should be added. According to different animals and different growth stages, The feeding amount of straw fermented feed is shown in the following table (for reference only):
the feeding amount of livestock species (kg /day humidity meter)
dairy cattle 15-20
beef cattle 10-20
Service cattle 10-20
sheep 1-3
horses and donkeys 5-10
rabbits 10-20
2. The trough shall be clean every time the feed is fed, and the straw biological feed shall be added less frequently in winter, It can also be mixed with dry forage to prevent cold and freezing.
3. Silage and yellow silage with poor quality cannot be fed.
4. The salt content in straw feed should be deducted when preparing diet.
5. Add drinking water frequently when feeding silage and yellow silage
VII. Storage and transportation
this product should be stored in a cool, dry, ventilated and dark place, and should not be stored and transported with toxic substances
VIII. Shelf life
under the above storage and transportation conditions, the shelf life is 18 months.

I. silage technology of corn straw

silage can preserve the corn straw that remains green or partially green after autumn harvest for a long time, which can well preserve its nutrients, soften its texture and have fragrance, enhance the appetite of cattle and sheep, and solve the shortage of forage in winter and spring. At the same time, making silage saves half the floor area than stacking the same amount of hay. It is also conducive to fire prevention, rain prevention, mildew and rot prevention and the elimination of crop pests on straw

the key to the technology of making silage is to provide necessary conditions for the reproduction of lactic acid bacteria:
first, in the preparation process, the raw materials should be cut as short as possible and compacted when loading the cellar, so as to eliminate the air in the cellar as much as possible. Second, the water content in the raw material is about 75% (that is, when the water can be twisted by hand but can not be dropped), which is most suitable for the reproduction of lactic acid bacteria. The need for watering should be determined according to the green degree of corn straw during silage. Third, raw materials should contain a certain amount of sugar. Generally, the sugar content of corn straw meets the requirements

there are many ways to silage corn straw. Here we only introduce the most basic general silage method, which is convenient for popularization in rural areas

1. Select a place with solid soil, high and dry terrain, leeward to the sun and not easy to be flooded by rain to build a silage pit. The cellar shape is generally divided into round and rectangular. The cellar wall is straight and smooth, impermeable and airtight. The width of the pit should generally be less than the depth, and the better ratio is 1:1.5-2, which is conducive to the compaction of raw materials by their own weight and reduce the loss. The size of the cellar

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